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Quantum Numbers Calculator Online: In an atom, every electron is expressed by four quantum numbers (they are principal, angular, magnetic, and spin). You have to understand that the initial three quantum numbers select the specific orbital of interest, ane the last one defines how many electrons can settle that orbital.
Try out our free & easy-to-use quantum number calculator and see the magic. It displays results along with definitions of quantum numbers, explanation of quantum number types, and many more.
Quantum numbers are the energy levels of an electron in an atom that are represented by integers. Quantum numbers prove the relative distance of the electron from the nucleus, types of orbital, and direction of spin in an atom. Also, it is used to explain the trajectory and the movement of an electron in an atom.
There are four different quantum numbers that are used to describe all the attributes of a given electron in an atom. They are:
These four quantum numbers are discussed clearly in the below following sections. So, look at the deeper explanation about them and learn the concept of quantum numbers as well as use the online quantum number calculator chemistry for faster results.
The symbol to denote the principal quantum number is 'n'. It describes the electron shell or energy level of an atom. The principal quantum number demonstrates the relative distance of electrons having distinct n values in a multi-electron atom from the nucleus. For instance: if n=1, Orbit or shell is K, if n=2, Orbit or shell is L, and so on.
Remember that the principal quantum number, n, cannot be equal to 0 or have a negative value as it is not feasible for an atom to have a negative value or n0 value for a principal shell.
Describes the shape of the subshell and its orbitals are called angular momentum quantum numbers. It is denoted with the symbol 'l' where l = 0,1,2,3,... contains s, p, d, and f orbitals respectively.
For instance, if the n=2 shell has subshells of l = 0, 1, that means the n = 2 shell includes s, p subshells. This tells that each shell has up to n-1 types of subshells or orbitals.
This type of quantum number will directly define the total number of orbitals consisting in a subshell and the orientation of these orbitals. The symbol that denotes the magnetic quantum number is 'ml'. The feasible values for ml of any type of orbital are specified by an integer value from -l to l.
m = 2l + 1 (values of l=+1 to -1 including zero)
Here the number of m value finds the number of orbitals of a specific type.
Finally, the last quantum number is the electron spin quantum number which has two types of velocity. There are orbital velocity and axial velocity. Also, it has two possible values +1/2 and -1/2. These two electrons revolve clockwise and anticlockwise over their own axis and give a magnetic field. The notation of spin quantum number is 's'.
The positive value of ms suggests an upward spin on the electron also known as ‘spin up’ and is indicated by the symbol ↑. If ms has a negative value, the electron in question is said to have a downward spin, or a ‘spin down’, which is denoted by the symbol ↓.
If n portrays the shell, then both n and l mean a subshell. n, l, and ml describe an orbital and all combined numbers (n, l, ml, ms) describe an electron.
The following table represents the chart of the allowed quantum numbers that help you refer to the values so quickly and easily. Look at the quantum numbers chart below:
|1||-1, 0, +1||3||2p||6|
|1||-1, 0, +1||3||3p||6|
|2||-2, -1, 0, +1, +2||5||3d||10|
|1||-1, 0, +1||3||4p||6|
|2||-2, -1, 0, +1, +2||5||4d||10|
|3||-3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3||7||4f||14|
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1. How do you calculate quantum numbers?
Firstly, take the element that you want to calculate the quantum number from the periodic table. Next, determine the principal number that indicates the element's energy. And later on, find the quantum numbers.
2. What are the 4 quantum numbers that explain each?
Quantum numbers are four and thet are principal(n), angular momentum(l), magentic moment(ml), and spin(ms).
3. What are the possible values of four quantum numbers?
|Principal Quantum Number||n||1,2,3,4,…|
|Azimuthal Quantum Number||l||0,1,2,3,….(n-1)|
|Magnetic Quantum Number||m1||-l,….,-1,0,1,…l|
|Spin Quantum Number||ms||+1/2,-1/2|